Its façade has balconies and windows elaborated in sandstone. [3][18] There is also a collection of masks and puppets which belonged to one of the most important theatrical companies in 20th-century Mexico. After eleven years, it was almost demolished but it was instead rehabilitated and converted into a hotel and place to hold events. The current structure dates from 1752 and has a façade of sculpted pink stone. Still other museums include the Episcopal Gallery, the Museo de la Ciencia and the Francisco Goitia Museum. Most mining today occurs on the Panuco, Vetagrande and Morelos mountains with the most active mines being El Compas, La Gallega, San Panuncio and San Rafael. [17] While operations began in the 16th century, its peak was reached in the 17th and 18th centuries. Trains provided direct links to Ciudad Juárez, Aguascalientes and Chihuahua, which led to emigration out of the state, primarily to the United States in the 20th century. 3 hours or The city has grown to the point where houses now balance on the edge of a creek and over the mounds of waste from mines. These are considered to be a traditional form of nightlife in which one can dance, sing and drink mezcal or beer-based punch called "heribertas" for free. As in the past, the state's dominant sector is mining, accounting for 13% of the state's GDP and .9% of the entire country's. Cierre del peso mexicano", "Early Silver Mining in New Spain 1531-1555", "The Hispanic Experience - Indigenous Identity in Mexico", "Zacatecas y Sonora brillan con impuestos", University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries, Portal with News and Information about Zacatecas,, States and territories established in 1823, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 20:02. The choir window is found here framed by stonework. About 90% of the events are free. Map of Zacatecas City, Mexico. [10] [26], The average number of years of schooling is 7.9 (second year of middle school), below the national average of 8.6. Tenamextle escaped the battle and continued to organize rebellions against the Spanish. [15] The only really open space is the main plaza. Since then the patron has been changed to the Virgin del Patrocinio, who is celebrated on the same day,. However, shortly afterwards most Spanish attention turned back south because of indigenous uprisings. Zacatecas City has a cold semi-arid climate (BSk, according to the Köppen climate classification), with an average annual temperature of 15.7 °C (60 °F). [14], The city is called "con rostro de cantera rosa y corazón de plata" (face of pink stone and heart of silver) because of the pink stone that many of its iconic buildings are made of and the silver that has spurred its development and history. The name comes from a legend that states that the owner fell into poverty and one night decided to commit suicide. [5][16], The Toma de Zacatecas Museum is located on Cerro de la Bufa, which played at part in the Battle of Zacatecas during the Mexican Revolution. Zacatecas is located in North-Central Mexico. Most of the revelers are students but all are welcome to join. One of the things to see is an altar to the Santo Niño de Atocha. [16] Next to the museum is the Chapel of Nuestra Señora del Patrocinio, an old hermitage from the 16th century. [4][8] The first major vein of silver was found in 1548 in a mine called San Bernabé. A big city usually has a population of at least 200,000 and you can often fly into a major airport. The area is divided between the Lerma River and El Salado River basins, with a large number of small streams and arroyos crossing the territory. This desert is home to a large amount of cacti and is one of the most ecologically diverse deserts on earth. Many of these buildings have structural and infrastructure problems such as flooding during rains and the damage this creates. [12][16], The state's history during the rest of the 19th century was tumultuous, as it was in the rest of the country. (2000), 113,947; metro. The rebels sacked the city and destroyed a number of buildings. [2][4] These peoples were mining silver and other metals in the hills long before the Europeans arrived,[5] making the area important in pre-Columbian times. [8], The El Edén mine began operations in 1586 and principally produced gold and silver. During the Mexican Revolution, Zacatecas was the scene of the Battle of Zacatecas in 1914, pitting the rebel forces of Francisco Villa against the government forces of Victoriano Huerta. During the colonial era the mines around Zacatecas yielded as much as one-fifth of the world’s silver production. Visiting Zacatecas and clueless where to start. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [12][20] Fifty-nine percent of the population lives in urban areas such as Fresnillo (pop. [20] The Church of Nuestra Señora de Fátima is an example of the relatively rare Gothic architecture in Mexico. This leader's decrees against Conservative sympathizers drove many Catholic priests out of the state. [32], The city's chamber music festival has been held annually since 1993. Only 12.3% have finished university level studies. [21] The main altar is dedicated to the Eucharist with side altars dedicated to the Holy Christ and the Virgin of Zacatecas. [16], Zacatecas's economy used to be almost completely centered on mining but has since diversified into cattle raising, agriculture, communications, food processing, tourism and transportation. It has exhibition and sales of crafts, livestock and food. The cathedral, built between 1730 and 1760, dominates downtown. View of Zacatecas City by Carl Nebel, 1836. [19] The Museo de la Ciencia (Science Museum) is located in the old central building of the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas and contains collections documenting the advances of physics, mathematics and natural sciences. To begin with, this is a detailed interactive tourist map of the Zacatecas which can be zoomed in for you convenience. [16] For the rest of the century, the state was mostly controlled by local strongmen, such as González Ortega, Trinidad García de la Cadena and Genero Codina. Following the expulsion of the Jesuits and a brief interlude in the hands of the Dominicans, the college was converted successively into a barracks, a prison and a warehouse before being restored in 1981. If you need to book a flight, search for the nearest airport to Zacatecas, Mexico. There is also public transportation intra-city as well. [16][18] There are also restaurants which offer regional dishes such as gorditas, asado de boda, pozole verde, pacholes, gorditas rellenas and enchiladas zacatecanas, filled with pork or cheese and covered in a sauce made with poblano, guajillo or ancho chili peppers. [6][21], The Cathedral is eighty-five meters high and entirely constructed of pink sandstone. [6] Today the monastery complex houses a museum but the church is in ruins. [16], The Zacatecano Museum is on Doctor Hierro Street and houses a collection of Huichol art, folk retablos (ex-votos) (folk paintings giving thanks for a miracle) and wrought ironwork.