Four paths with decorative and lofty gateways known as Keerthi Thorana or Hamsa Thorana, set according to the cardinal points, lead to the center where a huge Shiva Temple (Swayambhu Gudi) once existed. The Thoranas demonstrate both a creative masterpiece, and a continuity and transformation through interchange of cultural values like that of Buddhist art traditions from 2nd Century BC to 11th Century AD. He was also known as Rudra Deva, Kakatiya Rudradeva, Venkata, and Venkataraya[7][44] He was the son of Prola II, who had made efforts to assert greater Kakatiya influence on territories in the eastern parts of the declining Western Chalukyan empire and who died in a battle fought against the Velanati Choda ruler Gonka II around 1157/1158 while doing so. Rudrama Devi, also known as Rudramadevi, reigned around 1262–1289 CE (alternative dates: 1261–1295 CE) and is one of the few queens in Indian history. Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries. Sources. The link to Dance traditions of Kakatiyan empire and as documented in the Dance treatise Nritya Ratnavali by a military general Jayasenapati of the Kakatiyas is displayed in sculpture of Ramappa Temple . The proposal comprises the 3 serial sites of: 1. Sastry theorises that "Viṣṭi" is a corruption of Vrishni, the name of a clan from which some Rashtrakutas claimed descent. The Kakatiya temples and gateways are excellent examples of architectural, structural and sculptural ingenuity and can be compared to the following World Heritage Sites sharing common typological aspects of being historic building ensembles comprising temples and/or temple complexes. [69][70], The population became more settled in geographic terms. [67], Caste itself seems to have been of low importance as a social identifier. The hotel is built to mark a … [66], There is a disparity between analysis of inscriptions, of which the work of Cynthia Talbot has been in the vanguard, and the traditional works of Vedic Hinduism that described pre-colonial India in terms of a reverent and static society that was subject to the strictures of the caste system. [g] The four dynasties were in a constant state of warfare with each other, with the Kakatiyas eventually exercising control from close to Anagondi in the west to Kalyani in the north-east, and down to Kanei and Ganjam district in southern Orissa. The serial sites with three locations and components together form a representative of the criteria and demonstrate the attributes of Outstanding Universal Value, without any need of future additions to the series. [73], Tughlaq control of the area lasted only for around a decade. [64] Under the Kakatiyas, cultural innovation often began in the uplands, was refined in the lowlands and then recycled back into the Deccan. [14] Chronicles by Muslim authors such as Isami and Firishta describe Prataparudra's defeats against the Muslim armies. [41], After the decline of the Rashtrakuta power, the Kakatiyas served as vassals of the Kalyani Chalukyas. [4], Rudrama was married to Virabhadra, an Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu who had been selected for that purpose by her father. Remnants of Swayambhu temple and Keerthi Thoranas, Warangal fort (17˚ 57’ 22.75” N and 79˚ 36’ 55.48” E), 2. From there they expanded their influence into Coastal Andhra, the delta between the Godavari and Krishna rivers that feed into the Bay of Bengal. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakatiyya, Kakita, Kakati and Kakatya. This theory is based on the fact that the phrase Rashtrakuta-kutumbinah appears in several Rashtrakuta-era copper-plate inscriptions, and refers to the officers and subjects of the Rashtrakuta kingdom. Creation of Trikutalaya and Keerthi Thorana in temple typology, selection and making of materials, traditions and construction techniques, link to dance traditions of Kakatiya empire and as documented in the dance treatise of the time; display integrity in their form and material. A story in the Siddhesvara-charita states that Madhavavarman, an ancestor of the Kakatiyas, obtained military strength by the grace of goddess Padmakshi. [58][e] In 1309 Alauddin sent his general, Malik Kafur, in an attempt to force Prataparudra into acceptance of a position subordinate to the sultanate at Delhi. The representative temples and temple complexes include Archaeological remains of Swayambhu temple and Keerthi Thoranas at Warangal fort, Rudreswara Temple, locally known as Veyi Sthambala Gudi (Thousand pillars temple) at Hanumakonda and Rudreswara (Ramappa) Temple, which is located about 65 km from Warangal. [10], The Kakatiyas seemed to have adopted the mythical bird Garuda as their royal insignia, as attested by the Ekamranatha temple inscription of Ganapati-deva, the Palampet inscription of the Kakatiya general Recharla Rudra, and Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya. The fall of the Kakatiya Kingdom in 1323, after being subject to seizes by the Tughlaq dynasty, led to a political vacuum in the Andhras.The Islamic conquerors failed to keep the region under effective control and constant infighting among themselves coupled with the martial abilities of the local Telugu warriors led to the loss of the entire region by 1347. Village Administration of Rashtrakuta Empire. United Nations, Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centre’s Natural Heritage Strategy, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP). He presented himself as a legitimate successor to Prataparudra, by portraying both of them as righteous monarchs, meanwhile reconstructing Prataparudra's life and career in a favourable way. She successfully repelled the attacks of Seunas (Yadavas) of Devagiri into the Kakatiyan territory. Strengthening of foundations like sand box technique, the skill of Kakatiya sculptors is manifest in adroit craftsmanship and flawless ivory carving technique in their art. The Kakatiya temples and gateways are comparable to the WHS Group of Monuments at Hampi as both are creative masterpieces in temple building and technology. Charlu theorised that the Kakatiyas were a branch of the Telugu Cholas. This indigenously developed method, treatment of divine, human, animal, floral and geometric designs in most appealing proportions, creation of three dimensional figures, in an immaculate way using tiny tools and implements is a contribution for the human kind universally. [19], A few copper-plate inscriptions of the Kakatiya family describe them as belonging to the Kshatriya (warrior) varna. Anyone, regardless of birth, could acquire the nayaka title to denote warrior status, and this they did. Even before the arrival of the dynasty, there were large, well-established and well-endowed Hindu places of worship in the relatively populous delta areas; however, the temples of the uplands, which were smaller and less cosmopolitan in origin and funding, did not exist until the Kakatiya period. This, according to Sastry, strengthens the theory that the early Kakatiya chiefs were Jains. [53][d] She continued the planned fortification of the capital, raising the height of Ganapati's wall as well as adding a second earthen curtain wall 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in diameter and with an additional 150 feet (46 m)-wide moat. The growth of an agricultural peasant class subsumed many tribal people who previously had been nomadic. There are richly carved pillars, perforated screens, exquisite icons; rock cut elephants and the monolithic dolerite Nandi as components of the temple. This appears likely to be historical revisionism, dating from a genealogy published by the ruling family in 1703, because it records only eight generations spanning almost four centuries of rule. [47] He is also known as Ganapathi Deva and, according to Sastry, reigned between 1199–1262; Sircar gives regnal dates of 1199–1260. [74] The fall of the Kakatiya dynasty resulted in both political and cultural disarray because of both disparate resistance to the sultanate and dissension within it. [39] Historian P.V.P. It was the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty from the 12th to 14th centuries, and many intricately carved monuments from this period still stand. The dramatically altered the possibilities for development in the sparsely populated dry areas. A moat and numerous bastions were also constructed.[48]. [h] They were egalitarian in nature and promoted their subordinate warrior-chiefs who were similarly egalitarian and spurned the Kshatriya rank. They were at first the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. Gentle echoes of Kakatiya art and sculpture commemorate the legendary spirit of the Kakatiya dynasty at the ITC Kakatiya. The ingenuity of Kakatiya sculptors is visible in likes of lathe turned, and shiny polish in dolerite and granite stone sculpture and craft work of Nava rangamandapa. It records Dānārnava's grant of Mangallu village to a Brahmana named Dommana, at the request of Kakatiya Gundyana. A coin of Mahadeva bears the Kakatiya emblem varaha with the Yadava symbols; this varaha may have been stuck on Mahadeva's coins to mark the Kakatiya victory. The site of Swayambhu temple is an Archaeological site , requiring further exploration, as the total complex is yet to be reinterpreted for original link and layout with Warangal fort Town and other historical structures in and around fort. [72], According to tradition, Prola II was initiated into Shaivism by the Kalamukha preceptor Ramesvara Pandita, and established Shaivism as his family's religion. Though in form and material appear to be similar with Hemakuta group of temples at Hampi, the Kakatiya temples and Gateways exhibit proto type nature standing as testimony to the future Vijayanagara art style. For the imposing Jagati and Kakshasanas, the Kakatiya temples are comparable with Khajuraho group and Hemakuta group of temples at Hampi. [37], According to another theory, the suffix implies that the Kakatiyas were a branch of the Rashtrakuta family, because the term Rashtrakuta-kutumbinah was used for officers employed by the Rashtrakuta administration, not feudatory chiefs: the early records of the Kakatiya chiefs describe them as samantas (feudatory chiefs).