Pagkakaiba ng pagsulat ng ulat at sulating pananaliksik? This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The livre esterlin was equivalent to about 367.1 grams (5,665 gr) and was used between the late 9th century and the mid-14th century.[39]. "500 ounces") and, when the type of ounce is not explicitly stated, the troy system is assumed. [18][19][20] It was divided into 12 unciae (singular: uncia), or ounces. Its weight seems to have decreased gradually from the original 324 grams to 319. For other uses, see, IEEE Std 260.1™-2004, IEEE Standard Letter Symbols for Units of Measurement (SI Units, Customary Inch-Pound Units, and Certain Other Units). In the United States, the avoirdupois pound as a unit of mass has been officially defined in terms of the kilogram since the Mendenhall Order of 1893. [38], The soualia litra was specifically used for weighing olive oil or wood, and corresponded to 4/5 of the logarikē, i.e. The pound was based on the weight of 120 Arabic silver dirhams, which have been found in Offa's Dyke. redirect here. Find out what is the full meaning of IB. The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 0.453 592 37 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces. A pound of product must be determined by weighing the product in grams as the use of the pound is not sanctioned for trade within the European Union.[45]. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, and when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.[22][23]. The SI derived unit for weight or force is the newton. The most commonly used pound today is the international avoirdupois pound. The pound was defined thus (Section 4) "The ... platinum weight ... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade ... shall continue to be the imperial standard of ... weight ... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom". In much of Europe, the apothecaries' and commercial pounds were different numbers of the same ounce. ... ib is the abbreviation for pound. Multiple pounds based on the same ounce were quite common. It is not Ib but it is lb which is a short form for pounds in weight. It has a groove about 0.34 inches (8.6 mm) from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted using an ivory fork. IB - What does IB stand for? The mercantile pound (1304) of 6750 troy grains, or 9600 Tower grains, derives from this pound, as 25 shilling-weights or 15 Tower ounces, for general commercial use. This defined, in UK law, metric units in terms of Imperial ones. A list of all abbreviations for metric, imperial and troy weight units are given on this page. In the 19th century, Denmark followed Germany's lead and redefined the pound as 500 grams. and "lbs." Metric Unit Abbreviations. The following year, this relationship was refined as 2.20462234 pounds to a kilogram, following a determination of the British pound. [28], The system called Tower weight was the more general name for King Offa's pound. It was initially equal to 6992 troy grains. Christine Hopkins, Ann Pope, Sandy Pepperell (2013). In 1883, it was determined jointly by the Standards Department of the Board of Trade and the Bureau International that 0.4535924277 kg was a better approximation, and this figure, rounded to 0.45359243 kg was given legal status by an Order in Council in May 1898.[24]. 256 g. Some outlying regions, especially in later times, adopted various local measures, based on Italian, Arab or Turkish measures. 1 pound (lb) is equal to 0.45359237 kilograms (kg). [11][12] When used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. A number of different definitions of the pound have historically been used in Britain. The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. The unit is descended from the Roman libra (hence the abbreviation "lb"). As a result of the Congress of Vienna, these became part of various German states. Between 1803 and 1815, all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre. The equivalence for the pound was given as 1 lb = 453.59265 g or 0.45359 kg, which made the kilogram equivalent to about 2.2046213 lb. A hundred litrai were known as a kentēnarion (κεντηνάριον, "hundredweight"). Based on an evaluation of bronze nesting weight piles distributed by Manuel I to different towns, the arrátel of Manuel I has been estimated to be of 457.8 g. In the early 19th century, the arratel was evaluated at 459 g. [42], In the 15th century, the arratel was of 14 ounces of Colonha or 400.6 g. The Portuguese libra was the same as 2 arrátels. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, and an (international) grain is thus equal to exactly 64.79891 milligrams. The English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, and Swedish pund. ... IB stands for International Baccalaureate. [36] It was equal to 9,600 wheat grains (15 tower ounces or 6,750 grains)[27] and was used in England until the 14th century[27] for goods other than money and medicine ("electuaries").[36]. [33], The Tower pound was equivalent to about 350 grams. The most commonly used pound today is the international avoirdupois pound. The Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, and the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. Though not from the same linguistic origin, the Chinese jīn (斤, also known as "catty") has a modern definition of exactly 500 grams, divided into 10 liǎng (两). Since the 19th century, a livre has referred to the metric pound, 500g. It is equal to 409.51718 grams. The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound: it is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches (34 mm) high, and 1.15 inches (29 mm) diameter, and the edges are carefully rounded off. The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains. [34][35], The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria, or commercial pound) was considered to be composed of 25 rather than 20 Tower shillings of 12 pence. The libra (Latin for "scales / balance") is an ancient Roman unit of mass that was equivalent to approximately 328.9 grams. Historically, the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver. [26] Troy weights were used in England by jewellers. Traditionally about 605 grams, the jin has been in use for more than two thousand years, serving the same purpose as "pound" for the common-use measure of weight. Apothecaries also used the troy pound and ounce, but added the drachms and scruples unit in the Apothecaries' system of weights. [citation needed], The Tower system was referenced to a standard prototype found in the Tower of London and ran concurrently with the avoirdupois and troy systems until the reign of Henry VIII, when a royal proclamation dated 1526 required that the troy pound to be used for mint purposes instead of the Tower pound. The avoirdupois pound, also known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. [32] No standards of the Tower pound are known to have survived. It never became a legal standard in England; the use of this pound waxed and waned with the influence of the Hansa itself. What is the hink-pink for blue green moray? The libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, "lb". 200 Original Shop Aids and Jigs for Woodworkers. IB stands for Incline Bench (weight lifting). National Bureau of Standards, Re-determination of the values of the imperial standard pound and of its parliamentary copies in terms of the international kilogramme during the years 1960 and 1961, "Will British people ever think in metric?". [37], The Byzantines used a series of measurements known as pounds (Latin: libra, Greek: λίτρα, litra). The pound was redefined in the United Kingdom in 1963 relative to the kilogram. The 1878 Act said that contracts worded in terms of metric units would be deemed by the courts to be made according to the Imperial units defined in the Act, and a table of metric equivalents was supplied so that the Imperial equivalents could be legally calculated. The Tower pound was also called the Moneyers' Pound (referring to the Saxon moneyers before the Conquest),[29] the easterling pound, which may refer to traders of eastern Germany, or to traders on the shore of the eastern Baltic sea, or dealers of Asiatic goods who settled at the Steelyard wharf;[30] and the Rochelle Pound by French writers, because it was also in use at Rochelle. p. 195. It formed the basis of the Byzantine monetary system, with one litra of gold equivalent to 72 solidi. In 1854, the pound of 500 grams also became the official mass standard of the German Customs Union, but local pounds continued to co-exist with the Zollverein pound for some time in some German states.