I'd say Soviet entry into the war had a more decisive impact on the decision to surrender. The early 1930s saw the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany and Russia. Seventy-five years after it dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Enola Gay stands, restored and gleaming, as a museum exhibit close to Washington’s Dulles airport. Hiroshima was an industrial area with a number of military installations. American bombers initially had targeted the city of Kokura, where Japan had one of its largest munitions plants, but smoke from firebombing raids obscured the sky over Kokura. Selection of a suitable barrier material was a difficult problem, causing a dispute among adherents of competing approaches. The first atomic bomb test, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945. Atomic bomb records mostly exist in the form of before and after photographs, first person accounts from both sides, and atomic bomb records taken by the two military planes that escorted the Enola Gay, which were equipped with cameras and measuring equipment. Wargowski has created over fifty sculptures for his atomic art portfolio, including “The Pit Assembly,” and participated in two exhibitions, most recently at the Hiroshima Bank, to mark the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings. Much of the work in the Manhattan Project was performed in Los Alamos, New Mexico, under the direction of theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, “father of the atomic bomb.” On July 16, 1945, in a remote desert location near Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first atomic bomb was successfully detonated—the Trinity Test. North Korea tested two long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles in 2017—one reportedly capable of reaching the United States mainland. These are the primary fissionable materials used in atomic bombs. However, it soon became apparent that the magnets were plagued by numerous electrical shorts, caused by faulty design and manufacture. Materials vaporized in the fireball condense to fine particles, and this radioactive debris, referred to as fallout, is carried by the winds in the troposphere or stratosphere. Hours after that, the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The “Little Boy” exploded with about 13 kilotons of force, leveling five square miles of the city and killing 80,000 people instantly. The selection of Hanford over Oak Ridge was based on the former's remote location, which militated against disastrous results if a nuclear accident occurred. Finally they tentatively chose 17 cities, in a list that included Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He directed his aide, Lt. Col. Tatsusaburo Suzuki, to prepare a report. Many of the weapons were located in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. In the process of splitting, a great amount of thermal energy, as well as gamma rays and two or more neutrons, is released. International Atomic Energy Agency. The Making of the Atomic Bomb . Sources:The United States Air Force History Support Office, Image: National Archives and Records Administration. To many observers, the world appeared on the brink of nuclear war in October of 1962. German intelligence had discovered the direction of nuclear research in the United States and Great Britain. America’s immediate goal was to hasten Japan’s surrender, end World War II and avoid ...read more, On August 5, 1963, representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere. On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. It listed the targets to be attacked and included Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among others; and it referred to the possible use of more than one bomb. Atomic bombs are weapons that get their energy from fission reactions. As such, it has not been reviewed for accuracy by the University and does not necessarily adhere to the University's scholarly standards. A period of nuclear proliferation followed that war, and during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union vied for supremacy in a global nuclear arms race. The British decided to sabotage the ferry that would be involved. We are grateful to Clay Perkins and Joseph Papalia for their support of this project and for fact-checking some of the articles. The three most common fission bomb designs, which vary considerably in material and arrangement. Tibbets was highly qualified for the position. Citing the devastating power of “a new and most cruel bomb,” Japanese Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s surrender on August 15—a day that became known as ‘V-J Day’—ending World War II.