The adult African buffalo's horns are its characteristic feature: they have fused bases, forming a continuous bone shield across the top of the head referred to as a "boss". Adult bulls spar in play, dominance interactions, or actual fights. Calves may also spar in play, but adult females rarely spar at all. . African buffalo has poor eyesight and sense of hearing, but their sense of smell is excellent. It feed mainly on the grass. They will "preventively" kill cubs of lions that are known attackers of the herd. The statuesque bovine buffalo has an imposing presence which demands a level of respect. There are four subspecies of African buffalo that differs in color, size and type of habitat where they can be found. Calves are gathered in the middle. They stay with them throughout the season to protect the calves. Size - see table above. c. brachycerosS. , Two-week-old red calfAt Kazinga Channel in Uganda, Two-week-old calf sucklingAt Kazinga Channel in Uganda, Female with red calfAt Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania. After an hour of more shuffling, the females travel in the direction they decide. ", In the most recent and available census data at continental scale, the total estimated numbers of the three savanna-type African buffalo subspecies (S. c. caffer, S. c. brachyceros and S. c. aequinoctialis) are at 513,000 individuals. In large bulls, the distance between the ends of the horns can reach upwards of one metre (the record being 64.5 inches 164 cm). They sit in the direction they think they should move. In addition it takes in the De Hoop Marine Protected Area which includes 5 km of sea and is amongst Africa's largest protected marine sanctuaries. African buffalo is the only species of wild cattle that can be found in Africa. The larger bulls are targeted for their trophy value, although in some areas, buffaloes are still hunted for meat. When feeding, the buffalo makes use of its tongue and wide incisor row to eat grass more quickly than most other African herbivores. Calves make a similar call of a higher pitch when in distress.  This buffalo prefers a habitat with dense cover, such as reeds and thickets, but can also be found in open woodland. They emit low-pitched, two- to four-second calls intermittently at three- to six-second intervals to signal the herd to move. It is four times stronger than ox. Like the plains zebra, the buffalo can live on tall, coarse grasses. dry months. Visscher, D. R., Van Aarde, R. J., & Whyte, I. ... the height at the withers is less than 120 cm and average weight is about 270 kg (600 lb), or about the size of a zebra, and two to three times lighter in mass than the nominate subspecies. Besides that, they are protected against the predators. Males that are not part of the herd can form bachelor herds, or live a solitary life. (The forest, It will recognize a person (such as hunters) that hurt it in the past and it will attack it at their next encounter.