A2 milk is a variety of cows' milk that mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1, and instead has mostly the A2 form. In July, Paterson was found dead in his hotel room during a business trip at the age of 50, and a month later Dr. Corran McLachlan died of cancer at the age of 59. , In April 2007, A2 Corporation announced a deal in which the joint venture would license rights to the Original Foods Company, whose branding the milk with predominantly A2 protein product would carry, and in which the product would be sold in several midwestern states through the Hy-Vee supermarket chain under the a2 and a2 MILK brands.  In its first year, the milk recorded £1 million in sales through 1,000 stores. Cows' milk like this was brought to market by The a2 Milk Company and is sold mostly in Australia, New Zealand, China, the United States, and the United Kingdom. , "A2" and "A2 MILK" are trademarks held by the A2 Milk Company. :20[failed verification] On average, more than 70 percent of Guernsey cows produce milk with predominantly A2 protein, while among Holsteins and Ayrshires between 46 and 70 percent produce milk containing both the A1 and A2 proteins. , A2 Corporation was able to obtain agreements with enough dairy farmers to launch its milk in New Zealand at the end of April 2003. 9 February 2009, A2 Corporation Press Release 18 February 2011, Georgina Bond for the National Business Review.  The A1 beta-casein type is the most common type found in cow's milk in Europe (excluding France), the US, Australia and New Zealand.  Cows' milk like this was brought to market by The a2 Milk Company and is sold mostly in Australia, New Zealand, China, the United States, and the United Kingdom. 30 December 2004. These contracts were protected under New Zealand law by the Dairy Industry Restructuring Act of 2001. Cows that are A1A2 or A1A1 will not produce A2 milk. 27 November 2007. Brown Swiss generally have 75-85% A2 and the remainder A1.  A2 Corporation also petitioned the Food Standards Australia New Zealand regulatory authority to require a health warning on ordinary milk. The most common variants among Western cattle are A1, A2, and B.  In June 2014, the a2 Milk Company reported it had 20 dedicated farms supplying milk for processing in the UK.  By end of 2003 the weakened A2 Corporation had withdrawn the litigation against Fonterra and negotiations had resumed. A seven-amino acid peptide, beta-casomorphin-7, can be cut away from the A1-beta-casein protein by those enzymes, but the enzymes cannot cut the A2 protein at that location, so BCM-7 is not formed from A2 proteins. , Milk with predominantly A2 protein is not a milk substitute for infants with cow milk protein allergies. Cows with the A2A2 gene only produce A2 milk.  The press over the litigation and public concern over the claims of A2 Corporation led the New Zealand Food Safety Authority and the Ministry of Health and the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand to issue reports and statements confirming the safety of conventional milk. Australian Senate finance and public administration references committee report on Regional Partnerships and Sustainable Regions programs, October 2005, pages xiv, 97–100, A2 Milk Sales In NZ / Australia Increase Substantially. Current science supports the continued consumption of cow’s milk and dairy products. An A2A2 animal bred to another A2A2 animal will always have an A2 offspring. , The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the scientific literature and published their results in 2009.  BCM-7 can also be created during the fermentation of milk or through the process by which cheese is made; those same processes can also destroy BCM-7. The company said it expected a listing to be completed by March 2015. A point of reference is that A2 milk products are made from dairy cows that produce only the A2 beta casein protein, whereas today’s cow’s milk contains both A2 and A1 beta casein proteins. The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends three servings a day of dairy foods as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Beta-casein, which makes up 30% of milk protein, exists in two forms: A1 and A2. A genetic test, developed by the a2 Milk Company, determines whether a cow produces A2 or A1 type protein in its milk. A2 milk is being marketed as a healthier choice compared to regular milk. A2 milk only contains the A2 variant of beta-casein protein. The strongest evidence for any possible benefit of A2 milk are the rat studies that demonstrate BCM-7, which is released during digestion of the A1 beta casein variant, causes inflammatory immune response. , Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 November 2006. , A1 and A2 beta-casein are genetic variants of the beta-casein milk protein that differ by one amino acid. 31 March 2003, Press Release, A2 Corporation.  The EFSA found no relationship between any disease and drinking milk with the A1 protein. , Cow milk is about 87 percent water and 13 percent solids, a combination of fat, carbohydrates in the form of lactose, minerals, and protein. Therefore, the consumption of A1 beta casein has been brought to the public attention in particular in New Zealand and Australia, where A2 milk is marketed by the A2 Milk Company (previously A2 Corporation) as being a lower risk factor for disease development.  The research generated interest in the media, as well as among the scientific community and entrepreneurs. Among the caseins, beta casein is the second most abundant protein (about one-third of the caseins) and has an excellent nutritional balance of amino acids. , In February 2011, A2 Corporation announced it had a made a profit over a half-year for the first time; in the six months ending 31 December 2010, it made a net $894,000, or 17 cents/share. If BCM-7 gets through the gut and into the blood of people with immune deficiencies, they may experience negative health effects.  Studies in humans have not consistently found that BCM-7 is formed in the human digestive system. In referring to A2 milk, we are talking only about the specific type of protein it contains, called beta casein, and nothing else (not fat or carbohydrates). This mutation in the beta casein gene led to 12 genetic variants, of which A1 and A2 are most common. Jerseys are about 50/50 (though this greatly depends on the individual cow). However, Australian laws forbid companies from making misleading health claims about food, and in September 2004, A2 Dairy Marketers in Australia was fined $15,000 after it pleaded guilty to six breaches of those laws. The Holstein breed (the most common dairy cow breed in Australia, Northern Europe, and the United States) carries A1 and A2 forms of beta caseins in approximately equal amounts. EFSA reveals milk protein safety conclusions, A2 Corp sets sights on NZX with $20 million equity raising, "A2 Corporation set to expand into North America", Ideasphere Intends to Acquire Non-Ephedra Metabolife Assets, A2 Corporation Half-Yearly Report for the half-year ending September 2005, A2 Corporation takes full control of US marketing arm, "How the rise of A2 milk is adding millions to the fortune of Rich Lister Tony Perich", "A2 Milk fined A$20,000 for breaching Chinese advertising rules", "Cattle breeding allows for production of less allergenic milk", "India Awakening to Desi Breeds of Cow: Boost to A2 Milk Consumption", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A2_milk&oldid=985724356, Articles with dead external links from September 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with failed verification from February 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 16:00. If you choose to transition to an A2 herd, you can determine which cows and heifers to keep or cull once you receive your genomic results.  If it were indeed true that BCM-7 is harming humans, this would be an important public health issue, as well as a commercial opportunity. , The a2 Milk Company claims that people who experience discomfort drinking ordinary cows' milk may experience relief when they switch to milk with predominantly A2 protein. However, the suggestions that A2 beta casein provides levels of protection from developing schizophrenia, autism, diabetes, and CHD are unproven. Consumption of regular cow’s milk containing both the A1 beta casein and A2 beta casein variants has been implicated in the development of Type 1 Diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD) and, possibly, schizophrenia and autism in people with immune deficiencies.  The EFSA study emphasized the dangers of drawing conclusions from correlations identified in epidemiological studies and the dangers of not reviewing all the evidence at hand. As expected, the Holstein breed has the lowest percentage of A2A2 bulls in the Top 25 for Net Merit. , In December, A2 Corporation sold its interests in A2 Australia to Fraser & Neave, a food marketing giant in Asian markets, for about $1.1 million. Approximately 60 percent of the beta casein is A2, and 40 percent is A1. A2 Corporation had lost about $1.3 million for 2004, the same as it has lost the year before; the sale allowed A2 Corporation to rely on Fraser & Neave to build the Australian and Asian businesses. For the Normande breed, six bulls have daughters and the other 14 bulls are genomic only bulls. However, these arguments—strongly advanced by proponents of the benefits of A2 milk—are not that A1 milk causes these illnesses, but rather that A1 beta casein is digested in a different way compared to A2, resulting in the release of a peptide (a protein fragment) from beta-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7). , In 2018, the a2 Milk Company was fined 100,100 yuan for breaching Chinese child image advertising rules by using An Ji, son of Hu Ke and Sha Yi, in their advertising when he was under 10.