U.S. Air Force parajumpers in support of SF in Afghanistan. This means that conventional military personnel will not conduct these operations. local resistance movements, was lacking. As a former Special Forces soldier (Green Beret). The Mujahedeen in Afghanistan (prior to Soviet withdrawal), Ibo revolt in Nigeria, Tamil Separatists in Sri Lanka and the Oka Crisis in Canada (1990) are all examples of a traditional insurgency. The very roots of ANTIFA can be traced back as far as The Emancipation of Labor Party in Russia. Not only is one of the aims to reveal to the reader the characteristics and traits of insurgencies and recognize them; but also, to counter them and combat them. But are these assumptions valid for modern resistance warfare, as it has evolved over the half-century since classical UW doctrine was codified? But since the start of this century the evolution of resistance warfare within a rapidly changing environment has prompted the UW community to reconsider their relevance. The beauty of the ANTIFA is that it is NOT an organization but is an ideology that focuses it’s affiliation not on a sworn oath to ANTIFA, but its cause. (2013). [5] The White Star mission in Laos was initially covert, and used Special Forces and other personnel under Central Intelligence Agency control. No target should be attacked without a specific reason for doing so; the selected targets should be part of neutralizing a system of targets. Arquilla, J., & Ronfeldt, D. (1996). “The Evolution of Unconventional Warfare”. The infrastructure infiltrates military, police, administrative areas of government, labor groups and students. MASS ORIENTED INSURGENCIES – The Communist Insurgency in China, led by Mao Zedong, the Viet Cong Insurgency and Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) of Peru are all historical examples of Mass Oriented Insurgencies. In the more subtle examples of sabotage, however, the enemy may not suspect deliberate action caused an aircraft to crash. In the 1980s, SF worked with the Afghan mujahadeen against the Soviets, but in a role of supporting rather than leading the local personnel. Another very frightening fact is that many of the Marxist groups who spawned revolution in Russia during the 18 and 1900’s drew inspiration from a group known as the Jacobins. For Unconventional Warfare It's a game style I've been waiting for a long time. This exercise takes the Special Forces candidate from A to Z in the process of researching, planning, building, developing and maintaining a guerrilla insurgency. Increasingly, SF personnel took on other missions, principally SR and DA. The explosion of connectivity and social media during the last two decades has changed the methods available to resistance actors, but not their target: the legitimacy, cohesion and effectiveness of political institutions and leaders. This might possibly be the longest article you’ve ever read…..IF… you made it this far. 1, 2019, pp. Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, vol. With the advent of precision-guided munitions, the destructive part of the raid may involve the SF unit controlling air strikes. Even improvements in ISR capability, which push the attribution and detection thresholds down, only open up greater manoeuvre space for liminal warfare. Their primary job was to act as a Corps asset by providing accurate and timely intelligence from deep within enemy lines, as well as to execute raids upon high value targets and targets of opportunity. Such contact falls into the early parts of the UW operational model, without moving into combat phases. This group was highly successful and were known as the Devil’s Brigade. Small units or individuals, typically from SF or CIA, make clandestine contact with leaders in the AO, and gain agreement that SF teams will be welcomed. In fact, I would say that what they were seeing was genuine rapport and a real camaraderie. "Analysis of the operations conducted by Special Forces from the Balkans to OEF and OIF demonstrate a distinct trend away from the traditional "top-driven" intelligence, gathered and evaluated at higher command levels and disseminated to lower units, to a "bottom-driven" intelligence system based upon collection and exploitation of information at the user level. These include the idea that UW occurs mostly within denied areas; the categorisation of resistance movements into underground, auxiliary and guerrilla components; the model of a pyramid of resistance activities becoming larger in scale, more violent and less covert until they emerge ‘above ground’ into overt combat; and the assumption that the external (non-indigenous) component of UW primarily consists of infiltrated Special Forces elements, or support from governments-in-exile. Preparing for a 12 October visit to the Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the president sent word to the center’s commander, Colonel William P. Yarborough, for all Special Forces soldiers to wear green berets as part of the event. Kelley also cites the October 1997 Army Special Forces Vision XXI as saying "Dissident elements are the key to UW mission potential in any region. Notions derived from terrorist and militia movements—including leaderless resistance, remote radicalisation and ad-hoc direct action by self-motivated (but remotely mobilised) individuals—also suggest other models beyond the pyramid or netwar. The UW unit, however, will almost certainly identify and prioritize targets on its own. Harrisson, T. (1959). For a Foco insurgency to be successful, it must emerge during a time of simultaneous governmental collapse. .50 caliber for ranges over 1 kilometer, especially for materiel targets: M107/M88, a bolt-action rifle that is the standard sniper rifle for U.S. Navy special operations, M82A1, a semiautomatic rifle used by conventional units.